Skyscrapers have become an integral part of the landscape of any metropolis of the world, but the builders of high-rise buildings are often faced with the protests of citizens. Typically , opponents of skyscrapers talk about spoiled historical forms and asked to transfer the project to another location. But the developers of office skyscraper in the City of London in late August began to get quite unusual complaint: it turned out that because of hindsight architects building literally fry everything. As clarified ” Lenta.ru report Real Estate” , in the way developers of tall objects sometimes there are other unexpected obstacles , but it does not prevent the buildings become more environmentally friendly and energy efficient.
To build a business center ” Fenchurch Street 20″ in the business district of the British capital of Land Securities and Canary Wharf began in 2009. Originally it was planned that the 200- meter high tower costing £ 200 million will be put into operation in 2011 , but gradozaschitniki have reduced the height of 160 meters, and the deadline of an object moved in 2014. According to the draft Uruguayan architect Rafael Vinola in the building there will be 37 floors, will house the last three sky garden and publicly available observation deck .
In general , until recently, building serious inconvenience to anyone did not deliver . Claims fell by developers after glazing facades. The first skyscraper complained to passers-by are reflected blinded by bright sunlight and feel like ” ants , which are roasted through a magnifying glass ” (quoted by The Daily Mail). The fact that the northern and southern sides of the building are a concave surface , while the eastern and western – convex (because of their shapes skyscraper got the nickname Walkie Talkie, that is, portable radio, and The Pint – beer mug ) . As a result, the first act as a spherical mirror, focusing the rays on the earth.
Developers were quick to say the media that have not received any complaints , but it soon became clear , ” solarium” in the middle of City is a very real danger . The owner truck Vauxhall Vevaro Eddie Cannon, left his car on the street Istchip , on his return found that the left half of the body literally melts under the rays of the Walkie Talkie. Also affected the instrument panel and interior plastic parts . The next day, a similar fate befell a businessman Martin Lindsay , the owner of a much more expensive car Jaguar XJ. At this point, the builders were already aware of what is happening, because the strain on the windshield executive sedan Lindsey found a note with contacts Land Securities and Canary Wharf. The company brought the car owner apologized and took the cost of repairing the vehicle , valued at nearly $ 1,500 .
Finally hand in the investigation , the developers found that the brightest and hottest reflection occurs within two hours of the day when the sun is at an angle to the skyscraper . During this period, the rays incident on the building so that reflection focuses on particular street section Istchip . The experiment was one of the journalists showed that the temperature at this point reaches heights that allow the pan to cook eggs.
Representatives of the developers claim that within two to three weeks to change the trajectory of the sun and the ” sizzling ” effect is greatly reduced . To avoid a repeat of the building is planned to establish a special protective screen size of 4 to 15 meters , or put on the glass , ” scattering ” film. Now parking for cars on a “hot ” area is forbidden, but continue to suffer from the rays of the clerks , cyclists who have melted the saddle, and shop owners ( on buildings blistering paint, cracked tiles, and in the windows of perishable products , in one of the shops even waxed mat on the floor .)
Surprisingly, this is not the first case when the building started Vinola are flammable . In 2010, it was reported that the solar reflection of them designed Vdara Hotel in Las Vegas melt plastic objects near the pool. To minimize the inconvenience of visitors, hotel owners had to buy bigger umbrellas around the pool and drop additional plants in the shade of which are now sheltering campers . Apparently, the sad experience of the architect is not made to abandon projects with mirror bends.
With glazed facades largely related and other aspect of a high-rise building – the need to consider the safety of the birds. According to ornithologists, birds suffer from the skyscrapers are a number of ways . First, the very high buildings to be erected on the migration routes , as they can bring down the birds confused. In 2011, environmentalists reminded of this , ” Gazprom “, which after canceling construction Ohtinskom Cape developed skyscraper project in Lahti . Scientists have stated that the headquarters of the concern will prevent migratory birds traveling from Lapland in the winter . However, they later agreed with the arguments of the builder , who argued that the route has changed more in the 1980-1990 ‘s, when in an alluvium areas for housing were covered sandbanks that birds used for recreation.
Secondly , the risk of a direct pose glass. Bird, for example, can not see the obstacle and break or mix is reflected in the building of the tree with the present. Total from collisions with buildings in North America die each year up to a billion birds.
Safety standards for urban birds found in many cities , particularly in Chicago , Toronto and New York. One of the most detailed legislation since the end of 2011, a San Francisco. In order to better distinguish between birds glass facades is proposed to apply a ceramic coating , UV coating , various stencils, screens and curtains or apply frosted glazing. Experts also point to the need to reduce the intensity of the nighttime illumination of high-rises , which confuses the birds, and reducing the number of wind turbines . It is clear that the safety of birds requires additional costs , but if you take steps in the design stage , they will be minimal .
In the shade
Given the size of skyscrapers , the important factor is the shadow cast by the building . It may or may have an impact on areas of living micro-organisms and insects, as well as lead to a conflict with the owners of the neighboring high-rises . In 2010, a dispute developed between the Empire State Building owner Anthony Malkin and developer Steve Roth, decided to build a 370- meter skyscraper Penn Plaza at 275 meters from the historic site .
Malkin was trying to convince the city council of New York City that will forever change the new “postcard ” Manhattan skyline and overshadow the one of the symbols of the city. Officials of his arguments convincing not considered and approved the construction site, but the ” war ” in the end still won the Empire State Building, as in March 2013 Roth yourself abandoned the project Penn Plaza.
Despite the fact that the construction of skyscrapers has become commonplace , the preparation of any , even the most ambitious project includes dozens of items. Before working professionals need to explore the soil and groundwater , the wind rose , the seismic situation in the region , the impact of the building on the architectural and social environment of the city , the effect of altitude on the health of building occupants . Separately considering the issue of transport infrastructure , fire safety measures to prevent acts of terrorism and so on.
Particular attention is paid to the twenty-first century energy efficiency and environmental friendliness of skyscrapers. Some modern buildings are able to fully meet its electricity via solar panels and wind generators , and the technology itself is extremely diverse. Swedish architects , for example, recently submitted a draft skyscraper , fully coated strands of composite materials with piezoelectric properties. These yarns can change due to the structure to produce power even with a relatively weak wind. According to the developers , ” hairy ” can be made and existing buildings .
In Japanese cities with an orthogonal system of streets takes a different approach: the installation on skyscrapers pick up air currents that are moving along the long straight streets are accelerated to high speeds . Original technology are going to use in the construction of the tower Dynamic Tower in Dubai. It is assumed that the building is composed of 80 floors , each of which is independently rotatable about a central rod. Between levels, establish a horizontal wind turbines, which together will be able to produce up to 1.2 million kilowatt- hours. Along with solar installations Dynamic Tower will provide energy not only themselves, but also five neighboring buildings.
A huge number of confounding factors make it impossible to create a model of a skyscraper. Each project architects have to develop from scratch , so bugs like facades Walkie Talkie will arise in the future. On the other hand, partly because of the continuing developments contribute to the application of the most skyscrapers in new materials, technologies and design solutions that are then used in conventional homes.